The first successful professional techniques are developed in DENDRAL, a XX program, and MYCIN, designed to diagnose blood infections, are created at Stanford. The Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee report by the U.S. government details the lack of progress in machine translations research, a significant Cold War initiative with the promise of automatic and instantaneous translation of Russian. The ALPAC report leads to the cancellation of all authorities-funded MT tasks. Shaw develop the General Problem Solver , a program designed to mimic human drawback-fixing.

Because cognitive technologies typically assist particular person tasks quite than complete processes, scale-up virtually all the time requires integration with existing systems and processes. Indeed, in our survey, executives reported that such integration was the greatest problem they faced in AI initiatives. Vanguard, the funding providers agency, uses cognitive expertise to supply customers with investment recommendation at a decrease price.

Synthetic Intelligence In At Present’s World

At one U.S. apparel retail chain, for instance, the pilot project at a small subset of stores used machine learning for on-line product suggestions, predictions for optimum stock and fast replenishment fashions, and—most difficult of all—merchandising. Buyers, used to ordering product on the idea of their instinct, felt threatened and made comments like “If you’re going to trust this, what do you want me for? ” After the pilot, the buyers went as a gaggle to the chief merchandising officer and requested that this system be killed. The executive identified that the outcomes have been constructive and warranted expanding the project. He assured the consumers that, freed of sure merchandising duties, they could take on extra high-worth work that humans can still do better than machines, corresponding to understanding younger clients’ desires and figuring out attire manufacturers’ future plans. At the identical time, he acknowledged that the merchandisers needed to be educated a few new means of working.

A typical AI analyzes its environment and takes actions that maximize its likelihood of success. An AI’s meant utility perform may be easy (“1 if the AI wins a sport of Go, zero otherwise”) or advanced (“Perform actions mathematically much like ones that succeeded up to now”). If the AI is programmed for “reinforcement studying”, targets may be implicitly induced by rewarding some types of conduct or punishing others.

Machine Consciousness, Sentience And Mind

The common problem of simulating intelligence has been broken down into sub-problems. These consist of particular traits or capabilities that researchers expect an clever system to show. Finally, we observe that cognitive architectures such as Soar and PolyScheme are one other space where integration of different fields of AI could be found. For instance, one such endeavor striving to construct human-degree AI is the Companions project . Companions are long-lived techniques that attempt to be human-degree AI methods that operate as collaborators with people.

9 Powerful Examples Of Synthetic Intelligence In Use At Present

In addition, they are capable of studying from their mistakes and so they can adapt to the new surroundings. AI is achieved by studying how human mind thinks, and how people learn, resolve, and work while trying to unravel an issue, and then using the outcomes of this research as a basis of creating clever software and methods. According to the daddy of Artificial Intelligence, John McCarthy, it’s “The science and engineering of creating clever machines, especially intelligent pc programs”. A department of Computer Science named Artificial Intelligence pursues creating the computer systems or machines as intelligent as human beings. Machine learning fashions that aren’t deep learning models are based on artificial neural networks with just one hidden layer. These fashions are fed labeled information—data enhanced with tags that identify its features in a means that helps the mannequin establish and perceive the info.

These Artificial Intelligence techniques are designed to resolve one single downside and would have the ability to execute a single task rather well. By definition, they have slender capabilities, like recommending a product for an e-commerce person or predicting the weather. They’re capable of come close to human functioning in very specific contexts, and even surpass them in lots of instances, however solely excelling in very managed environments with a limited set of parameters. Building an AI system is a cautious strategy of reverse-engineering human traits and capabilities in a machine, and utilizing it’s computational prowess to surpass what we are able to. Now that we understand how Artificial Intelligence can be designed to behave like a human, let’s take a look at how these methods are built.

What’s Artificial Intelligence? How Does Ai Work, Types And Future Of It?

In our survey, solely 22% of executives indicated that they thought-about decreasing head depend as a main benefit of AI. Our survey and interviews counsel that managers experienced with cognitive expertise are bullish on its prospects. Although the early successes are comparatively modest, we anticipate that these applied sciences will ultimately remodel work. We believe that firms which might be adopting AI carefully now—and have aggressive implementation plans for the long run—will find themselves as properly positioned to reap advantages as people who embraced analytics early on. Many organizations have successfully launched cognitive pilots, however they haven’t had as a lot success rolling them out organization-broad. To achieve their targets, corporations need detailed plans for scaling up, which requires collaboration between technology consultants and house owners of the business course of being automated.

Despite these concerns, other countries are moving ahead with rapid deployment in this space. However, critics worry that AI algorithms symbolize “a secret system to punish residents for crimes they haven’t but committed. The danger scores have been used quite a few instances to guide massive-scale roundups.”25 The fear is that such instruments target individuals of colour unfairly and have not helped Chicago reduce the murder wave that has plagued it in recent times. One of the reasons for the growing position of AI is the super alternatives for financial improvement that it presents.

Machine Studying

The similar legal guidelines can be codified and applied to artificial intelligence algorithms. The points with this method, because fixing a problem in precept and solving them in follow can be fairly different, requiring contextual nuances to use. Also, there are some actions that we take without being one hundred% certain of an end result that an algorithm may not be able to replicate if there are too many parameters.


It seems that neural networks currently reign as the best approach to the problem in accordance with a latest rating by Benenson . It might strike you as preposterous that logicist AI be touted as an strategy taken to duplicate all of cognition. Reasoning over formulae in some logical system could be acceptable for computationally capturing excessive-degree duties like attempting to solve a math downside , but how might such reasoning apply to duties like these a hawk tackles when swooping right down to seize scurrying prey? In the human sphere, the task efficiently negotiated by athletes would appear to be in the same class. Surely, some will declare, an outfielder chasing down a fly ball doesn’t prove theorems to determine tips on how to pull off a diving catch to save the sport!

In some sectors where there is a discernible public benefit, governments can facilitate collaboration by constructing infrastructure that shares knowledge. For instance, the National Cancer Institute has pioneered a knowledge-sharing protocol where licensed researchers can query well being data it has using de-recognized data drawn from medical knowledge, claims information, and drug therapies. That allows researchers to judge efficacy and effectiveness, and make suggestions concerning the best medical approaches, without compromising the privateness of particular person patients. Twitter makes much of its tweets obtainable to researchers by way of application programming interfaces, commonly known as APIs. These tools assist people outdoors the company construct utility software program and make use of information from its social media platform.

Historical Past Of Artificial Intelligence: Key Dates And Names

Weizenbaum was also bothered that AI researchers had been keen to view the human mind as nothing more than a computer program . Whether a machine can have a thoughts, consciousness and psychological states in the same sense that human beings do; if a machine could be sentient, and thus deserve certain rights − and if a machine can deliberately cause hurt. Modern artificial intelligence methods are pervasive and are too quite a few to record right here. Frequently, when a technique reaches mainstream use, it is now not considered synthetic intelligence; this phenomenon is described because the AI impact.

Artificial Intelligence and Ex Machina, in addition to the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? Dick considers the concept our understanding of human subjectivity is altered by know-how created with artificial intelligence. The regulation of synthetic intelligence is the event of public sector policies and legal guidelines for selling and regulating synthetic intelligence ; it is therefore associated to the broader regulation of algorithms. The regulatory and coverage panorama for AI is an rising concern in jurisdictions globally, including within the European Union. Regulation is taken into account essential to each encourage AI and manage associated dangers.

Benefits & Risks Of Artificial Intelligence

\(E\) would be a model of not just a single game or a task, but the whole bodily-social-virtual universe consisting of many video games, tasks, conditions, problems, and so forth. This project is hopelessly troublesome as, obviously, we’re nowhere near to having such a complete concept-of-every thing mannequin. For further discussion of a theoretical structure put ahead for this problem, see the Supplement on the AIXI structure.

Artificial Intelligence News Science-daily

Machines with intelligence have the potential to use their intelligence to stop hurt and reduce the risks; they may have the ability to make use of moral reasoning to better choose their actions in the world. As such, there is a want for coverage making to devise policies for and regulate synthetic intelligence and robotics. Research in this area consists of machine ethics, synthetic ethical brokers, pleasant AI and discussion towards constructing a human rights framework can also be in talks. Whether intelligent machines are harmful; how people can ensure that machines behave ethically and that they’re used ethically.

Argument-primarily based approaches to unsure and defeasible reasoning are just about non-existent in AI. Readers excited about AI pursued from an overtly mind-based mostly orientation are inspired to discover the work of Rick Granger and researchers in his Brain Engineering Laboratoryand W. H. Neukom Institute for Computational Sciences. The contrast between the “dry”, logicist AI began at the original 1956 conference, and the method taken here by Granger and associates is outstanding. For these thinking about computational properties of neural networks, Hornik et al. address the final representation functionality of neural networks impartial of studying. Another key current remark is that deep neural networks can be pre-educated first in an unsupervised section the place they are simply fed information with none labels for the data. The end result of this coaching is a sequence of layers which characterize the enter domain with growing ranges of abstraction.

Work And Employment For A Sustainable Future

Those arrangements typically convey with them options to introduce extra modern instruments, similar to chatbots that depend on artificial intelligence to reply questions in regards to the vaccines, their availability, and local prioritization rules. The spacecraft will have to use a brand new system, full of artificial intelligence, to scan the terrain and match it with maps of Mars to attempt to pick a landing spot. Turing Tape papers are by invitation solely, the place authors can then submit a 2-web page proposal of a Turing Tape paper for affirmation by the special editors. The 2-page proposal should include a convincing motivational dialogue, articulate the relevance to synthetic intelligence, clarify the originality of the position, and supply proof that authors are authoritative researchers within the area on which they are expressing the position.

The success was as a result of rising computational power (see Moore’s legislation and transistor rely), greater emphasis on solving particular problems, new ties between AI and other fields , and a commitment by researchers to mathematical methods and scientific standards. Deep Blue grew to become the first laptop chess-taking part in system to beat a reigning world chess champion, Garry Kasparov, on 11 May 1997. The improvement of metallic–oxide–semiconductor very-massive-scale integration , in the form of complementary MOS transistor expertise, enabled the event of practical synthetic neural network know-how within the Nineteen Eighties. A landmark publication within the field was the 1989 e-book Analog VLSI Implementation of Neural Systems by Carver A. Mead and Mohammed Ismail.

1 The Intelligent Agent Continuum

The journal stories results achieved in addition to proposals for brand new methods of taking a look at AI issues, each of which should include demonstrations of value and effectiveness. In the past few decades, there was an explosion in knowledge that does not have any express semantics attached to it. Most of this knowledge isn’t easily machine-processable; for example, pictures, text, video (versus fastidiously curated data in a data- or knowledge-base). This has given rise to an enormous trade that applies AI methods to get usable data from such huge data. This field of applying techniques derived from AI to giant volumes of knowledge goes by names such as “data mining,” “big knowledge,” “analytics,” and so on.


If you’re unfamiliar with primary pc science and AI programming languages, will probably be helpful to take and introductory class to study Python, R or another programming language commonly used in knowledge evaluation. If your firm plans to launch several pilots, consider creating a cognitive center of excellence or related construction to handle them. This approach helps build the needed expertise expertise and capabilities inside the group, whereas also helping to maneuver small pilots into broader functions that can have a larger impression. Pfizer has more than 60 tasks across the corporate that make use of some form of cognitive know-how; many are pilots, and some at the moment are in production. Proof-of-idea pilots are particularly suited to initiatives that have high potential business worth or enable the organization to check different technologies at the same time.

AI can analyze manufacturing facility IoT information because it streams from linked gear to forecast anticipated load and demand using recurrent networks, a specific sort of deep learning network used with sequence data. AI is helping to embed “higher smartness into machines” but it’s not taking up the world, says Oliver Schabenberger, SAS Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer. When algorithms are self-studying, the information itself can become mental property.

Enhancing Data Access

Historically, initiatives such as the Cyc knowledge base (1984–) and the huge Japanese Fifth Generation Computer Systems initiative (1982–1992) tried to cover the breadth of human cognition. These early initiatives failed to flee the constraints of non-quantitative symbolic logic fashions and, in retrospect, greatly underestimated the difficulty of cross-domain AI. Nowadays, most current AI researchers work instead on tractable “slender AI” applications . One excessive-profile instance is that DeepMind in the 2010s developed a “generalized synthetic intelligence” that would study many various Atari games on its own, and later developed a variant of the system which succeeds at sequential learning. Besides transfer learning, hypothetical AGI breakthroughs could embody the development of reflective architectures that can have interaction in determination-theoretic metareasoning, and determining how to “slurp up” a complete data base from the complete unstructured Web.

Speech Recognition − Some clever techniques are able to listening to and comprehending the language when it comes to sentences and their meanings while a human talks to it. It can deal with totally different accents, slang phrases, noise within the background, change in human’s noise due to cold, and so forth. To Implement Human Intelligence in Machines − Creating techniques that perceive, assume, study, and behave like people. Artificial Intelligence is a method of making a computer, a pc-controlled robot, or a software program suppose intelligently, in the same manner the clever humans suppose.

Dictionary Entries Near Artificial Intelligence

We are additionally very grateful to the anonymous referees who provided us with meticulous reviews in our reviewing spherical in late 2015 to early 2016. Special acknowledgements are because of the SEP editors and, particularly, Uri Nodelman for patiently working with us throughout and for offering technical and insightful editorial assist. Artificial Intelligence Positioned to be a Game-changer, an excellent section on AI from CBS’s esteemed 60 Minutesprogram, this offers a popular science level overview of the current state of AI . The videos within the section covers applications of AI, Watson’s evolution from successful Jeopardy! Thus we have the possibility not simply of weapons of mass destruction however of data-enabled mass destruction , this destructiveness hugely amplified by the facility of self-replication. We will return to the difficulty of the future of AI in the ultimate sectionof this entry.

Milk Of Animals


These genes are discovered in the Placozoa and the upper animals, the Bilateria. 6,331 groups of genes frequent to all living animals have been recognized; these could have arisen from a single common ancestor that lived 650 million years ago in the Precambrian. Animals are monophyletic, that means they’re derived from a standard ancestor. Animals are sister to the Choanoflagellata, with which they kind the Choanozoa.

Sightings of those spiders in the college’s library basement prompted staff to close the library for 2 days. — free for readers, with article processing costs paid by authors or their establishments. All bugs are part of the taxonomical phylum Arthropoda, and they are collectively referred to as arthropods. It is widespread to see this name misspelled as “anthropod,” but this is not the correct term. They could be present in practically each setting on the planet, and they presently account for over half of all known dwelling organisms on the planet.

Animals vary in size from 8.5 micrometres (zero.00033 in) to 33.6 metres . They have complicated interactions with one another and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The kingdom Animalia contains humans but in colloquial use the time period animal usually refers only to non-human animals.

Our network of photographers and filmmakers are available for assignments worldwide. People have used looking dogs to help chase down and retrieve animals, and birds of prey to catch birds and mammals, whereas tethered cormorants have been used to catch fish. However, probably the most stored pet species are mammals, specifically dogs, cats, and rabbits. There is a pressure between the function of animals as companions to people, and their existence as people with rights of their own.A extensive number of terrestrial and aquatic animals are hunted for sport. The remaining animals, the good majority—comprising some 29 phyla and over one million species—form a clade, the Bilateria.

Typically, there is additionally an inner digestive chamber with both one opening or two openings . Animals are distinctive in having the ball of cells of the early embryo develop right into a hole ball or blastula . Our editors will evaluation what you’ve submitted and decide whether or not to revise the article. Let us know if you have ideas to enhance this article .



During improvement, the animal extracellular matrix types a comparatively versatile framework upon which cells can transfer about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex buildings potential. This may be calcified, forming structures similar to shells, bones, and spicules. In distinction, the cells of different multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, and so develop by progressive development. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes. Humans make use of many other animal species, such as for meals , for supplies , as pets, and as working animals together with for transport. Dogs have been utilized in hunting, whereas many terrestrial and aquatic animals were hunted for sports activities.

The signs of the Western and Chinese zodiacs are based mostly on animals. Animals such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster serve a significant function in science as experimental models. Animals have been used to create vaccines since their discovery within the 18th century. Some medicines such because the most cancers drug Yondelis are primarily based on toxins or other molecules of animal origin. The Lophotrochozoa consists of the molluscs, annelids, brachiopods, nemerteans, bryozoa and entoprocts.

This is a time for thoughtful and decided motion, and for significant change. At its core, HIDDEN is a worldwide dialog and a call to action. 10,000+ royalty-free pictures and video out there for anyone working to inspire compassion, conversation and alter.

Only after their small actions were noticed in 1765 did the animal nature of sponges slowly come to be recognized. Animals are multicellular eukaryotes whose cells are sure together by collagen. Animals dominate human conceptions of life on Earth due to their size, diversity, abundance, and mobility. The presence of muscular tissues and mobility is among the main characteristics of the animal kingdom. Explore the pages to the proper and be taught why our world depends on wholesome animals.

Selective pressures imposed on each other result in an evolutionary arms race between predator and prey, resulting in numerous anti-predator adaptations. Some customers use multiple strategies; for instance, in parasitoid wasps, the larvae feed on the hosts’ residing tissues, killing them within the process, however the adults primarily devour nectar from flowers. Other animals might have very specific feeding behaviours, such as hawksbill sea turtles primarily consuming sponges. Other than out of straightforward curiosity, people examine animals to find out about themselves, who’re a very latest product of the evolution of animals.

However, related tracks are produced at present by the large single-celled protist Gromia sphaerica, so the Tonian trace fossils might not point out early animal evolution. Around the same time, the layered mats of microorganisms called stromatolites decreased in variety, perhaps because of grazing by newly advanced animals. Species estimates shown listed below are based on numbers described scientifically; a lot larger estimates have been calculated based mostly on various technique of prediction, and these can range wildly. For occasion, around 25,000–27,000 species of nematodes have been described, while printed estimates of the total number of nematode species include 10,000–20,000; 500,000; 10 million; and one hundred million. Using patterns within the taxonomic hierarchy, the total variety of animal species—together with those not but described—was calculated to be about 7.77 million in 2011. The blue whale is the most important animal that has ever lived, weighing as much as at least a hundred ninety tonnes and measuring up to 33.6 metres lengthy.

History Of Animals


Noticeably much less cautious, they’re exploring terrain that has lengthy been the realm of humans and their lethal machines. But no one has informed them that the COVID-19 journey restrictions are lifting. The number of animals which have and will proceed to be culled within the wake of Covid-19 symbolize a mere fraction of those who are killed for our consumption every single day. Their deaths, now newsworthy, reveal the failings of a system destined to repeat itself. Your support is important in serving to us examine and expose the truth for animals trapped in the human world. There are over 1 million identified animal species and more than 98% of these are insects, that are certainly animals.

Animals have been the topics of art from the earliest times, both historical, as in Ancient Egypt, and prehistoric, as in the cave paintings at Lascaux. Major animal paintings embrace Albrecht Dürer’s 1515 The Rhinoceros, and George Stubbs’s c. 1762 horse portrait Whistlejacket.Insects, birds and mammals play roles in literature and movie, similar to in big bug motion pictures. Animals including bugs and mammals function in mythology and faith. In both Japan and Europe, a butterfly was seen because the personification of an individual’s soul, whereas the scarab beetle was sacred in historical Egypt. Among the mammals, cattle, deer, horses, lions, bats, bears, and wolves are the subjects of myths and worship.

Most animals depend on the biomass and power produced by vegetation via photosynthesis. Herbivores eat plant material instantly, whereas carnivores, and other animals on greater trophic levels usually purchase it indirectly by eating other animals. Animals oxidize carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and different biomolecules to unlock the chemical vitality of molecular oxygen, which permits the animal to grow and to sustain organic processes such as locomotion.

In measurement animals are outdone on land by crops, amongst whose foliage they might often cover. In contrast, the photosynthetic algae, which feed the open oceans, are normally too small to be seen, however marine animals vary to the scale of whales. Diversity of form, in distinction to measurement, solely impinges peripherally on human awareness of life and thus is less observed. Nevertheless, animals characterize three-quarters or more of the species on Earth, a variety that reflects the flexibility in feeding, protection, and reproduction which mobility provides them.

Please see the key beneath for an explanation of the abbreviations used within the chart. The US Endangered Species Act was enacted in 1973—signed into law by President Richard Nixon after passing the Senate by a vote of 92–0 and the House of Representatives by a vote of 390–12. The function of the ESA is to protect and recuperate imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they rely. Since its enactment, the ESA has confirmed to be an efficient security internet for imperiled species—extinction has been prevented for more than 98 % of the animals under its care.

Covid-19 Vaccine

Covid-19 Vaccine

Senate forged forward with President Joe Biden’s $1.9 trillion coronavirus relief plan early on Saturday, turning again Republican makes an attempt to switch the package in a marathon session that had begun the prior day. The United States Congress is scrambling to complete work on President Joe Biden’s $1.9 trillion COVID-19 aid bill earlier than some present pandemic-related benefits are due to expire. Brazil’s daily COVID-19 demise toll might reach three,000 if severe motion is not taken to halt the unfold of the virus, based on a presentation made in a meeting of the government’s disaster response team, two sources current told Reuters. The European Union will urge the United States to permit the export of hundreds of thousands of doses of AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine because it scrambles to bridge supply shortfalls, the Financial Times reported. California Healthline is a free every day information service of the California Health Care Foundation, printed independently by KHN. Bill Of The Month This investigation by KHN and NPR dissects and explains your medical bills every month.

However, an individual should do as much as they can to develop resilience and put together the physique and mind to cope with illnesses as they arise. Wellness promotes energetic consciousness of and taking part in measures that protect health, each as an individual and locally. Maintaining wellness and optimum health is a lifelong, every day commitment. According to the Seven Countries Study, researchers studied folks in choose European countries and located that those that ate a healthful food regimen had a decrease 20-12 months dying rate. According to some research, the higher an individual’s socioeconomic standing , the extra likely they’re to take pleasure in good health, have a good education, get a properly-paid job, and afford good healthcare in occasions of sickness or damage.

Lost On The Frontline A collaboration between The Guardian and KHN that goals to document the lives of health care workers in the U.S. who die from COVID-19. KHN is a national newsroom that produces in-depth journalism about well being points. Together with Policy Analysis and Polling, KHN is one of the three major working programs atKFF. KFF is an endowed nonprofit organization offering information on health points to the nation. Researchers are testing therapies to overcome autoimmune reactions that begin when the body’s defenses reply to the coronavirus.

For example, the media are more likely to do a narrative a few examine that reveals that eating a particular type of food may assist stop cancer. But other research may show that consuming that meals does not actually make a lot difference. For new medication or treatments, randomized, controlled scientific trialsare the best way for deciding whether a remedy works. In this sort of analysis, some of the members get the drug, vitamin, or other therapy being examined.

In this Curiosities of Medical History characteristic, we look at bloodletting, the historical practice of withdrawing blood for the advance of health. In this Special Feature, we concentrate on the antagonistic health results of persistent publicity to socioeconomic adversity and political marginalization. As the first anniversary of the pandemic approaches, we spoke with Dr. Leo Gurney from Birmingham Women’s hospital within the U.K.

Current Well Being Information

Current Well Being Information

These research are often a starting — however they’re normally not the top of the story. Large newspapers, magazines, TV networks, and radio stations typically have medical reporters on workers to cowl developments in well being and drugs. Their job is to report difficult scientific info in a way that is straightforward for regular people to understand.

Micronutrients – nutritional vitamins and minerals – are consumed in relatively smaller quantities, however are essential to physique processes. The meals information pyramid is a pyramid-shaped guide of wholesome meals divided into sections. Each part shows the really helpful intake for every food group (i.e. Protein, Fat, Carbohydrates, and Sugars). Making wholesome meals decisions is necessary because it could possibly decrease your threat of heart illness, developing some types of most cancers, and it will contribute to maintaining a healthy weight.

Good well being is central to dealing with stress and dwelling an extended, more energetic life. In this text, we clarify the which means of good well being, the types of health a person wants to think about, and tips on how to protect good well being. The word well being refers to a state of complete emotional and bodily nicely-being.

This new vaccine will now be a part of the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines within the fight against COVID-19. “I’m petrified,” the actress said when she shared the information that her breast most cancers came back. Here’s why a stage four breast most cancers diagnosis may be so scary. Jordan talked to her science teacher in regards to the antidepressant story. She helped Jordan perceive that certain antidepressants (just like the one Jordan’s sister was taking) are OK for teens. She additionally helped her discover that the research results did not mean all the teenagers within the examine committed suicide whereas on the medication.

When watching or reading a news report a couple of new drug or therapy, see if it tells you whether or not the findings concerned animals or people. It may not — so you will have to do some sleuthing by yourself to get the information. A lot of medical research is completed in the laboratory or in lab animals, not in people — at least, not at first. Lab research help scientists figure out whether a drug looks promising, how it works, and whether or not there could be side effects. But what occurs in a laboratory does not essentially work the same in individuals.